Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and its implication on livestock production in mixed-farming system areas of Bale highlands, Southeast Ethiopia; Challenges and extents of Soil and Water Conservation measures in Guba-Lafto Woreda of North Wollo, Ethiopia; Evaluation of milk production performance of lactating Fogera cows fed with urea and effective micro-organisms treated rice straw as basal diet.

E3 Journal of Agricultural Research and Development

E3 Journal of Agricultural Research and Development Vol. 5 (3) pp. 0137-0144, December 2015; © E3 Journals; ISSN 2276-9897

Review on Mycotoxins in Feeds: Implications to Livestock and human health

Mekuanint Gashaw 1 *
1 Maddawalabu University, School of Agriculture, Department of Animal and Range Science; Phone: +2510932314227, +2510918095071
*Corresponding Author E-mail:
Accepted 18 November 2015


The objective of this review was identifying mycotoxins in livestock feeds and effects on livestock as well human health. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by wide range of fungi (molds) toxic to humans, livestock and plants. There are over 100 species of fungi that can infect plants and forages and produce mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium genera which invade crops in the field and may grow during storage under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity. Aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, ochratoxins, and fumonisins are some of mycotoxins that found in feeds. Consumption of a mycotoxins-contaminated diet may induce acute and long-term chronic effects resulting in teratogenic, carcinogenic, and oestrogenic or immune-suppressive effects. Direct consequences of consumption of mycotoxins-contaminated livestock feed include: reduced feed intake, feed refusal, poor feed conversion, diminished body weight gain, increased disease incidence (due to immune suppression), and reduced reproductive capacities. Three fundamental factors exist for the development of fungi and the production of mycotoxicosis are physical, chemical and biological factors are determined. The effect of mycotoxins in human and animal health can be determined by amount of affected feed/ food, length of time, age, species as well as environmental factors. Ruminants such as cattle, sheep and goats are less common for their sensitivity to the negative effect of mycotoxins than non ruminants. Mycotoxins have direct influence on features of specific organs (liver, kidneys, reproductive System). To control mycotoxins in feeds before harvest and post harvest mechanisms are available and these methods include different physical, chemical and biological systems depending on their availability.

Keywords: Mycotoxin, feed, livestock, human, health

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